Commissioning the landscape; Queens politician’s anti-bioswale crusade; Dallas escalating heat island

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Friday, September 01, 2017

Debbie Hamrick Subscribe
New Terrain

Commissioning landscapes
Queens bioswale fight
Biodiversity of urban green
City butterflies suffer
ASLA stands up to Trump
Dallas heat island
Megacities' $500 million trees
ASLA home water guide
D.C. mall  mircrobes persist
Trees: $59 million in WVA
Reader comment
Worth reading

Why you need to learn about commissioning the landscape

This year’s ASLA Conference in Los Angeles features a very interesting session Saturday afternoon that will dive into the nuts and bolts of the idea of commissioning the landscape. The subject of the session will be a new paper from the U.S. General Services Administration's (GSA) landscape architecture program written with Andropogon Associates. The Site Commissioning White Paper examines commissioning the public landscapes GSA builds and operates nationwide.

What is landscape commissioning? Basically, it would be a process that documents and verifies the process of building the landscape and developing the site. In the construction trade, commissioning a building is often performed by an independent third party. Commissioning is a way to bring a higher level of performance and quality to the project through greater oversight of the process -- a properly commissioned building that's constructed properly and functions as designed. Using commissioning as a way to validate and verify how landscapes are constructed and function would help to raise the bar for landscape performance.

The GSA/Andropogon study aims to “bring focus to the validity, utility, feasibility and methodology of extending a suite of commissioning type protocols into the area of landscape and site level construction with the overall goals of optimizing investments in green infrastructure, realizing intended project outcomes, clarifying direct and indirect costs, improving planning, design and construction sequencing, ensuring successful project turnover, and more deeply integrating dynamic systems; all in an effort to make project development more thorough and responsive to context,” writes Christian Gabriel, RLA, ASLA, GSA National Design Director-Landscape Architecture in announcing the study’s release. The white paper involved input from 89 expert industry partners spanning a range of practice sectors.

Commissioning landscapes would be a big step forward to quantifying, validating and ensuring the functionality of green infrastructure. GSA is well positioned to lead. If you’d like to know more, attend the ASLA session, SAT-B03 - Site Commissioning: Verifying Performance in an Era of Assumptions. Presenters include Christian Gabriel and Maureen Alonso from GSA, and Jose Alimnana and Lauren Mandel from Andropogon Associates.


Queens politician rebels against DEP bioswales

New York State Senator Tony Avella recently held a press conference to voice constituent concerns about bioswales in Queens. 

New York State Senator Tony Avella (D-11th District) is crusading on behalf of constituents who aren't enamored with New York City’s Department of Environment Protection’s Plans to install bioswales in many Queens neighborhoods. Sen. Avella would like DEP to offer an “opt-out” choice for Flushing residents. According to the senator’s press release and local newspaper reports, DEP says that’s a no-go. “Instead, the DEP informed the Queens politician that the agency would only be making exceptions for seniors with handicap placards on their vehicles and homeowners with sprinkler systems installed in their lawns,” reported the Queens Times Ledger.

Residents opposed to bioswales say they're an eyesore, gather pollution, foster mosquitos (when they're filled with water after a rain), they reduce on-street parking and residents will be stuck with maintenance.

Senator Avella’s press release says, “Though the concept sounds good the effects these local water drains can have on the local water table, that in many cases in Northeast Queens is capped with a layer of clay, is disastrous. The clay erosion results in massive sinkhole creation. That, along with the disruption of parking and debris collection in the bioswale grating, cause pollution, loss of parking, inconvenience and threaten private home infrastructure at the street level.”

DEP is installing bioswales (a.ka.a. rain gardens) and other infrastructure projects worth more than $580 million to protect Flushing Creek and Flushing Bay, among the most polluted water bodies in the U.S. It’s part of their larger effort to reduce stormwater runoff from New York City.

DEP writes in a press release that “rain gardens are built in city sidewalks and do not result in the loss of any parking spaces. They resemble standard street tree pits, except that they vary in size, have curb cuts that allow stormwater to enter and overflow if it becomes saturated, and have been designed in a way that will allow them to manage up to 2,500 gallons each during a storm.” The 115 bioswales constructed so far in Queens are expected to remove 15 million gal. of stormwater annually. The bioswales will work in conjunction with underground tanks and sewer upgrades to help reduce stormwater pollution flowing into Flushing Creek, one of the nation’s most polluted water bodies.

Community outreach in Queens has been part of the process, with DEP saying they’ve met with elected officials, Community Boards 3, 4, 6, 7 and 11, as well as numerous other neighborhood and environmental organizations in the Flushing Bay and Flushing Creek watershed areas.

Sarah Maslin Nir in a New York Times article earlier this year wrote, “The opposition comes at a time when efforts to build the resilience of cities in the face of climate change is an urgent and international undertaking. And it underscores a perennial tension that has ensnared similarly ambitious environmental efforts, where wind farms, erosion-blocking dunes and solar energy arrays are viewed as unsightly. In corners of Queens and streets of Brooklyn, the same not-in-my-backyard response has found resonance with those who prefer their waterfront views — and even sidewalks — just the way they were.”


The biodiversity benefits and pitfalls of urban green

The American Institute of Biological Sciences issued an interesting press release about an article in Oxford University’s publication BioScience. The article summarized some of the key points made at the 26th International Congress for Conservation Biology symposium, “The Role of Urban Green Spaces in Maintaining Biodiversity and Ecosystem.”

So how big does urban green space need to be to matter for urban biodiversity ecological functionality? Studies of how birds use various urban green spaces show that some species that are well adapted to the urban environment require as much as 25 to 80 acres of habitat, while forest-dwelling bird species would need more and hawks still even larger habitat. While there’s a global evidence base on urban birds, little is understood about the habitat area required for other animals that could be found in urban ecosystems. Size is important, but so is habitat quality.

Writing in BioScience, Christopher Lepczyk, Auburn University, and colleagues discuss the future of urban biodiversity. Urban green spaces "comprise a range of habitat types that cross a continuum from intact remnant patches of native vegetation, brownfields, gardens and yards to essentially terraformed patches of vegetation that may or may not be representative of native community associations," they write. Understanding the diversity of these areas, as well as their connections with similar patches, will be essential for urban land managers who wish to promote healthy ecosystems.

The surge in green infrastructure and other green space projects can inadvertently create "ecological traps," in which local restoration "may draw individuals to relatively low-quality habitats" that lack the scale and features to support the newly arrived migrant species. In fact, the authors point out, ecological restoration efforts have been identified as one of the "most frequent causes of ecological traps." An ecological trap may look attractive to a migrant species, but may not support survival and reproduction.

But urban green space is more important than ever says Lepczyk and his coauthors: "…urban green spaces provide opportunities for citizens to connect with nature, witness ecological processes in action and potentially become scientifically literate citizens who make informed decisions regarding conservation initiatives and policy."

Moral of the story: It takes a village approach to building relevant, functional urban landscapes today that spans politics, planning, design, engineering, soil science, horticulture and urban ecology just to name a few of the disciplines that ideally come together to foster the urban ecosystem.

Biodiversity in the City: Fundamental Questions for Understanding the Ecology of Urban Green Spaces for Biodiversity Conservation by Christopher A. Lepczyk Myla F. J. Aronson Karl L. Evans Mark A. Goddard Susannah B. Lerman J. Scott MacIvor in BioScience (Open Source).



Butterfly population diversity suffers in city centers

Pieris rapae , cabbage white, is the ideal butterfly to model genetic diversity in urban city centers. Photo by Estelle Rochat.

A study in Marseille, France, shows that greater city density results in lower butterfly populations. A graduate student, Estelle Rochat, in the EPFL’s Laboratory of Geographic Information Systems (LASIG), measured the effect of urbanization on the genetic diversity of cabbage whites (Pieris rapae). Her results show diversity fell by 60% to 80% in areas with a high urbanization rate (> 56% impervious land cover). In less dense neighborhoods, with 3% to 13% impervious cover, the loss in diversity was just 16% to 24%.

Estelle also found that the butterfly population is 70% to 90% smaller in heavily urbanized areas. What’s more, butterflies that can fly only short distances seem to be more vulnerable to the effects of growing urbanization.
--Urban butterflies under threat of extinction by Sandrine Perroud for Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland.

Persistence of butterfly populations in fragmented habitats along urban density gradients: motility helps by E. Rochat, S. Manel, M. Deschamps-Cottin, I. Widmer and S. Joost in Heredity (open source).


ASLA opposes elimination of Flood Risk Standard (FFRMS)

In response to President Trump’s executive order intended to streamline the environmental approval process for major infrastructure projects, Nancy Somerville, Hon. ASLA, executive vice president and CEO of the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA), released the following statement:

 “ASLA is deeply concerned with the executive order’s roll back of the Federal Flood Risk Management Standard (FFRMS). This order ignores both existing risks of flooding and future impacts of climate change, thereby increasing the risk of loss of property and lives. Responsible planning and development must address issues of floodplain management and incorporate green infrastructure in order to improve the resilience and security of our communities.

 “We need the kind of infrastructure plan that helps our nation thrive, grows jobs and improves community health and resilience. ASLA priorities for the nation’s infrastructure." These are outlined in Landscape Architects Leading Community Infrastructure Design and Development that center on green infrastructure solutions in four areas:

  • Fixing our nation’s water management systems
  • Upgrading to a multimodal transportation network
  • Recognizing public lands, parks and recreation as critical infrastructure
  • Designing for resiliency

 -ASLA Press Release


Dallas County heating up second-fastest in United States

Photo credit: Visit Dallas

The city and county of Dallas is heating up quickly. At 35% impervious surfaces, it’s no wonder. The 2017 Dallas Urban Heat Island Effect report summarizes a year-long study of the impacts and implications of air temperatures at the neighborhood level. Most notable among the findings: Dallas is heating up faster.

The report, published by the Texas Trees Foundation (“Texas Trees”) and sponsored by Alliance Data, Wells Fargo and American Forests, was completed by Dr. Brian Stone, School of City and Regional Planning, Georgia Institute of Technology and author of "The City and the Coming Climate – Climate Change in the Places We Live."  

Key findings include:

  • The hottest areas of Dallas measured an average high of 101F and an average low of nearly 80F for five full months of the year.
  • Heat-related deaths peaked at 52 in 2011 in Dallas County. Heat-related deaths in the United States account for more deaths annually than all other natural disasters combined.
  • Tree planting in the hottest areas with high density residential was found to reduce deaths by more than 20% by merely dropping temperature alone.

“With a dual perspective from my seat as Chairman of the Board for Children’s Health System of Texas, and as the leader of a Fortune 500 company headquartered in North Texas, the economic impact of the rising temperatures in Dallas has never been more at risk,” said Ed Heffernan, President and Chief Executive Officer, Alliance Data in a press release about the report. “We know from our partnership with Texas Trees Foundation and data from the Urban Heat Island study that health is directly impacted when temperatures increase and air quality declines. Childhood asthma rates are at an all-time high, with nearly 10% of all Dallas children suffering from asthma.”
Texas Tree Foundation press release


Annual value of Trees? About $500 million per megacity

Trees are valuable to megacities: $505 million in ecosystems benefits, about $3.1 million per sq. mile or $35 per person for the average resident.

In the world’s megacities that are home to nearly 10% of the global population, trees provide each city with about $505 million each year in services that make urban environments cleaner, more affordable and more pleasant places to live. The study, published in the online journal Ecological Modelling, was authored by an international team of researchers.

The value of trees' services could easily be doubled by simply planting more of them, notes the study's lead author Dr. Theodore Endreny, College of Environmental Science and Forestry (ESF), Syracuse, New York, in a press release.

The study estimated existing and potential tree cover, and its contribution to ecosystem services in 10 megacity metropolitan areas, home to about 1.5% of the world’s population. The cities were Beijing, China; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Cairo, Egypt; Istanbul, Turkey; London, Great Britain; Los Angeles, United States; Mexico City, Mexico; Moscow, Russia; Mumbai, India; and Tokyo, Japan.

Implementing and managing urban forests: A much needed conservation strategy to increase ecosystem services and urban wellbeing by T. Endreny, R. Santagata, A. Perna, C. DeStefano and R.F.Rallo in Ecological Modeling (Open Source).


New ASLA Guide: How to Improve Water Management at Home

The American Society of Landscape Architects has created a new online resource for residential landscape architecture. The guide, developed for use by homeowners and landscape architects shows how to manage water at home through research and projects that are designed to 1) mitigate flooding and 2) use water wisely in the landscape.

The guide explores how to incorporate rainwater infiltration and storage, as well as water recycling and limiting the use of valuable potable water for landscapes. Sections cover landscape features, such as bioswales and bioretention ponds, rain gardens, rainwater harvesting, water recycling and drip irrigation. Sections are heavily linked to resources, research, organizations, government resources and projects.


National Mall soil microbes persist through construction

A photo snip from the Trust for the National Mall webpage on the Mall renovation.

Anyone who’s been to Washington, D.C. in the past couple of years couldn’t help but notice that the National Mall is under renovation. What does that mean to the soil microbiome?

That’s the question that was posed by a group of researchers who took a look at the rhizosphere microbiome at the National Mall pre- and post-renovation. They predicted that the two would be vastly different, especially after installing farm-raised sod grown in New Jersey, but they discovered microbes persist. To the researchers’ surprise, the communities of microbes didn't change a lot before and after the renovation.

“My lab is interested in how microbes can move around in the environment, and how they change and adapt as a result of this movement,” explains Jo Anne Crouch, a USDA-Agriculture Research Service researcher. Jo Anne is lead author of the study. “We thought that the new ‘imported’ turf from New Jersey would introduce different communities of bacteria to the National Mall. However, we found that they weren’t significantly different.

“We were surprised by the outcome, as we thought that the microbiome would experience big changes and that just wasn’t what the data showed,” Jo Anne says. “However, there is still much to learn about how issues like this impact microbes that are paired with plants.”
--USDA Agricultural Research Service funded this research. Press release.

The US National Mall Microbiome: A Census of Rhizosphere Bacteria Inhabiting Landscape Turf by Jo Anne Crouch, Zakiya Carter,  Adnan Ismaiel and Joseph A. Roberts in Crop Science (Open Source).


West Virginia’s $59+ million urban forests

Greg Dahle, associate professor of arboriculture and urban forestry in the WVU Davis College of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Design, completed a report estimating that West Virginia’s urban forests provide annual ecosystem services valued at more than $59.7 million. They do it by capturing 4.3 million pounds of pollutants and sequestering 2.8 million tons of carbon ($53.3 million).

The study looked at West Virginia’s 16 cities and towns that had earned the Tree City USA designation and used i-Tree to determine valuations.

“In this heavily forested state, many residents take their urban trees for granted,” Greg said in a university press release. “This report helps our forest managers better understand and communicate the crucial role urban forestry fulfills in our cities and communities. I hope this will help drive interest in not only planting more street trees, but in maintaining green spaces along homes and businesses throughout the state.”
West Virginia University press release


Thanks for the feedback--Reader comments

Thanks for feedback on the Survey Monkey survey. NewTerrain and green infrastructure is a passion for which I volunteer my time. Your positive comments, dedication to the practice and the great ways that you’re using this information are rewarding.

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Reader comment

“How about reducing turf and not treating lawns as another alternative? Diversity is important in the landscape [and] is another essential for pollinators.”
-- Kathy Hale-Johnson, Simply Native Nursery on "Managing turf for pollinators"




September 7: Midwest Tree and Shrub conference (IL)

Which trees and shrubs will thrive in a changing climate? How can we plan gardens that stand the test of time? These are questions that will be answered at the Midwest Tree and Shrub Conference: Landscape for a Changing Future at the Chicago Botanic Garden, which is presenting this symposium in partnership with The Morton Arboretum.

September 13: Eco-tour -- North Creek Nurseries (PA)

Join the Ecological Landscape Alliance for an Eco-tour: North Creek Nurseries Test and Trial Gardens. North Creek specializes in producing plugs and cuttings of perennials, ornamental grasses, ferns, vines and shrubs with an emphasis on Eastern U.S. native plants. Their Landscape Plugs provide planting solutions for ecological projects, including storm water management, soil stabilization, landscape restoration and habitat establishment. North Creek has focused on using sustainable and ecologically based practices for their 30 years in business. Owner Steve Castorani is a national leader in the nursery industry. You’ll enjoy seeing their production facilities and gather ideas from the tour of their trials and plantings.  

September 18-21: Seattle CitiesAlive (WA)

The CitiesAlive 15th Annual Green Roof and Wall Conference is themed “Building Resilience and Equity across Cascadia: People, Community, and Places” in Seattle, Washington. The conference will highlight the necessity of green roofs and walls alongside Cascadia's unique characteristics as they contribute to community, place making and the resilience of the people through a variety of sessions and workshops. In addition to the educational sessions, CitiesAlive will have a trade show and tours to some of Seattle's best green infrastructure projects. 

September 23: Monarchs across Georgia "Pollinator Symposium" (GA)

Join Monarchs Across Georgia for a one-day "Pollinator Symposium" featuring renowned speakers, butterfly and nature walks, exhibitors and demonstrations. Speakers and their topics include: Sonia M. Altizer, Professor, Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA on Monarch Butterflies; Nancy Lee Adamson, Biologist, The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation and USDA NRCS East National Technology Support Center, Greensboro, NC on Native Bees; Kim Bailey, Master Gardener, National Wildlife Habitat Stewart, Milkweed Meadows Farm, Hendersonville, NC on Hummingbirds; and Keren Giovengo, EcoScapes Program Manager, UGA Marine Extension and Georgia Sea Grant, Brunswick, GA on Gardening for Pollinators.

October 9-11: Pollinator Conservation, Traverse City (MI)

The second national conference related to pollinator conservation in ornamental plant production and urban landscapes, organized by Michigan State University and North Carolina State University, will be held at Park City Hotel, Traverse City, Michigan. The conference, geared to research, extension, industry, government and NGOs, fosters discussion about issues, such as insecticide safety and habitat conservation.

Featured speakers and conference contributors include Laurence Packer, York University; Damon Hall, St. Louis University; Dan Potter, University of Kentucky; Mary Gardiner, The Ohio State University; and Mace Vaughan, Xerces Society Pollinator Conservation Program. Among the key issues that will be explored include:

  • Function of pollinators in urban landscapes
  • Pesticides and pollinators
  • Pollinator health and habitat in urban landscapes
  • Efforts, challenges and opportunities for protecting pollinators
  • Educating the public about the importance of protecting pollinators

October 16: Rain to Drain (ARCSA) (FL)

American Rainwater Catchment Systems Association (ARCSA) annual meeting will be held at the Rosen Centre Hotel, Orlando, Florida.

October 17: Impact Conference: Building Sustainable Landscapes (IL)

Join the Illinois Landscape Contractors Association for the first Impact Conference: Building Sustainable Landscapes. Participants will learn how to combine building blocks that nature provided: soil, water and plants from nationally known experts, including Keynote Larry Weaner who will present “Finding Your Niche: Establishing an Ecological Focus for Your Firm.” Sessions will show how to create vigorous, low-maintenance landscapes that endure over time.

October 19: UConn Native Plants and Pollinators Conference (CT)

The University of Connecticut is hosting a one-day conference for professionals, the Native Plants and Pollinators Conference. Topics include: “Lifestyles of Pollinators” by David Wagner; “Native Perennials for Bees, Butterflie, and Birds” by Emily DeBolt; “Selecting Native Shrubs for Season-long Pollinator Support” by Jessica Lubell; “Research Update: Examining Pollinator Attraction of Shrub Nativars” by Jacob Ricker; and “Native Trees for Pollinators” by Andrew Brand.

October 26-27: NC State's 18th Vermiculture Conference (NC)

The James B. Hunt Jr. Library, NC State University, Raleigh, is the location for NC State's 18th Annual Vermiculture Conference. The event is the only annual training in the world on commercial vermiculture and provides the tools to start or expand an earthworm or vermicompost production operation.

November 3: Turning a New Leaf (VA)

The Turning a New Leaf conference to be held at the Hilton Washington Dulles Airport, Herndon, Virginia, is organized by the folks at the Chesapeake Conservation Landscaping Council. It’s a full day that features presentations from industry leaders, innovators and experts. The event includes an EcoMarketplace where businesses can market their products and services, and provides multiple networking opportunities.

November 6-9: O&M of Stormwater Control Measures (CO)

The ASCE- EWRI Operation & Maintenance of Stormwater Control Measures Conference 2017 in Denver is an outgrowth of more than a decade of international low impact development conferences. The conference will highlight advances in operation and maintenance approaches, advances in municipal program management and implementation, life cycle cost analysis and lessons from the field. The meeting will address the growing need for state and municipal staff, regulators, consultants and more, to share successes and lessons learned around stormwater operation and maintenance (O&M).

November 8-9: The Conservation Conference, Baltimore (MD)

The Conservation Conference by the Wildlife Habitat Council will be held at the Baltimore Marriott Waterfront. Join the conversation on the challenges and opportunities facing corporate conservation, and the emerging trends and best practices that will define its future. The meeting facilitates discussions important for corporate conservation, employee engagement and community relations. Gain valuable information and strategies to face the issues and challenges of corporate biodiversity programs, and learn techniques and best practices for successful wildlife and habitat management.

November 29-30: 2nd Green Infrastructure Conference (Europe)

EUGIC 2017 Budapest brings together some of the leaders in the field of urban green infrastructure from across Europe and the world to share the experience of working with nature to deliver livable cities. Urban greening leaders will share projects, visions and research from cities implementing nature-based solutions. Patrick Blanc, innovator of the modern vertical garden movement, is the keynote speaker. EUGIC 2017 Budapest is funded by the European Union.

Save the Date: 2018 Next Generation Water Summit (NM)

The 2018 Next Generation Water Summit will return to the Santa Fe Convention Center, Santa Fe, New Mexico, on April 29 to May 1, 2018. Sunday, April 29th will once again be free and open to the general public. Professional sessions will be held on Monday, April 30 and Tuesday, May 1. "We have been overwhelmed by the positive response from those who attended the 2017 Next Generation Water Summit," said Summit Co-Chair and Santa Fe Green Chamber of Commerce Executive Director Glenn Schiffbauer. Stay tuned for more details.


Worth reading

Hurricane Harvey Has Dropped So Much Rain, The National Weather Service Had To Make A New Map by Tod Perry on GOOD.

How tranquil spaces can help people feel calm and relaxed in cities by Greg Watts on The Conversation.

Hybrid barriers can cut terrapin road deaths, new UGA study finds by Sandi Martin for The University of Georgia.

A Very Detailed, Interactive Map of Chicago’s Tree Canopy--It reveals some startling patterns by Delaney Nolan on Atlas Obscura.

Cure Yourself of Tree Blindness by Gabriel Popkin in The New York Times.

Trees enhance our health and well-being by Dr. Lisa Richards in the Winnipeg Free Press

Green Roofs Are Getting a Big Trial in Hoboken by Jared Brey on Next City.

1st of 8 rain gardens in SF set to open in Ingleside district by Dominic Fracassa in the San Francisco Chronicle.

Developing Sterile Invasives (Why Bother?) by Ellen Sousa for the Ecological Landscape Alliance Newsletter.

How one town learned to live with venomous rattlesnakes Elodie Reed in the  Christian Science Monitor.

Imagine an "ecological certification" for urban design. What are such a certification's key elements? by various Authors on The Nature of Cities.

Roadside prairies approved by Chris Rogers for the Winona Post.

President Trump Continues to Bulldoze Environmental Regulations by Jared Green for ASLA’s The Dirt.

Best Podcasts for Landscape Architects by Dana Davidsen for ASLA’s The Dirt.

Urban floods intensifying, countryside drying up on

Incomplete drought recovery may be the new normal on EurekaAlert.

Ticks are here to stay. But scientists are finding ways to outsmart them by Susan Milius in Science News.

Ditch the fuchsia to boost British wildlife, says Royal Horticultural Society by Sarah Knapton in The Telegraph.

A look at post-drought California and water conservation and Research highlights the benefits native plants provide birds by Jill Odom in Total Landscape Care.

Detroit water chief: Owners of green lots shouldn't pay hefty drainage fee by Bill Latner for the Detroit Free Press.

Green roofs help to curb polluted runoff, especially if space is limited by Whitney Pipkin for the Bay Journal.

Worth listening: China's Biodiversity and Sustainability Challenges by Steve Bynum and Jerome McDonnell for WBEZ Chicago.

'Water-wise' versus 'drought-tolerant': What does all the terminology really mean? by Janet Kinosian in the LA Times.

In the name of science, put down your loppers and enjoy your (slightly messy) garden by Debora Robertson in the Telegraph.

Animals Need Commute Routes in Human Habitats--Nonhuman species are facing a loss of connectivity that threatens their daily and seasonal movements by Hillary Rosner for The Atlantic.

Bee inspired: why Oslo has put ecological riches at the heart of the city--Norway wants urban gardeners to cultivate wildflowers and keep hives to reverse a decline in biodiversity by Jonathan Watts in The Guardian.

Bringing Back Native Thistles by the Xerces Society.

‘The windscreen phenomenon’ - why your car is no longer covered in dead insects by Sarah Knapton in The Guardian.

Planting Local: Ways Your Business Can Go Green by David Morrison in the Columbia Business Times.



Debbie Hamrick


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